Emerald Ash Borer Study-Latest Research Out of MSU-Kentwood EAB trial, 2010

 

GREEN ASH: Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. D. R. Smitley & T. W. Davis

EMERALD ASH BORER; Department of Entomology

Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire Michigan State University

East Lansing, MI 48824-1115

517-355-3385

tdavis@msu.edu

 

Mixing and applying drench treatments at Kentwood EAB trial, 2010.

 

EMERALD ASH BORER CONTROL IN ASH STREET TREES IN A NEIGHBORHOOD IN MICHIGAN, 2008 – 2012.   Ash street trees in two neighborhoods in the northeast corner of Kentwood, Mi were used for this test.  The trees were tagged in early Nov 2008, and were blocked based on location, trunk diameter and the number of replications required for each treatment.  The 175 trees in the southern neighborhood (42º55’54.12”N 85 º 33’11.19”W) were about 15-18 years old and were about 20 ft tall.  The trees ranged in size from 5 to 14 inches DBH with a mean of  9.8 inches.  The 50 trees in the northern neighborhood (42º56’21.67”N 85º33’16.23”W) were more mature and ranged from 9 to 20 inches DBH with a mean diameter of 15.3 inches.  The trees were marked with a numbered aluminum tag.  Treatment 0 was applied in the fall of 2008.  All of the other treatments were initiated in 2009.  The number of replications varied between 9 and 12, depending on the requirements of the company requesting the treatment.  The treatment specifics and application dates are listed in the detailed treatment descriptions below and in Table 1.  Dieback ratings were taken on 10 Jul 2009,  12 Jul 2010, 22 Jul 2011 and 10 Jul 2012  by having 2 (2009), 3 (2010), 4 (2011) or 3 (2012) samplers independently sample each tree.  The final rating value assigned to each tree was the average value for that year.  The trees were rated from 0% – no dieback, to 100% – a completely dead tree.  The mean dieback rating for each tree was converted arcsin(sqrt(1/x) before running ANOVA.

Evidence of emerald ash borer activity was obvious and widespread in the site from the beginning of the test.  Most of the trees were showing either epicormic growth, blonding (a flecking of the bark that seems to be indicative of EAB caused by woodpeckers or small mammals.  It is not a wholesale woodpecker hit), bark cracking and on some trees – dieback or a combination of symptoms.  Most of the trees in 2009, 2010 and 2011 did not exhibit any canopy dieback.  The 2009 dieback ratings should be considered a background assessment as the treatments made in 2009 would not have shown any differences in canopy dieback until 2010.  Even though there were actually statistically significant differences between treatments in 2009 and the untreated treatment was the highest, this was not due to an impact of the chemical treatments.  Usually a rating of less than 20% dieback is considered to be background, but the springs of 2010 and 2011 were wet, and the trees were full and healthy (see Table 3).  Most of the trees were assessed as having less dieback in 2010 than they had in 2009.  The fact that most of the trees in the site were treated with insecticides may have contributed to the lack of dieback, as the insects are very mobile and will move from tree to tree while feeding for several days before ovipositing, allowing for the potential of ingesting insecticide.  As a result, dieback ratings did not show any treatments as being significantly different from the controls in 2010 or in 2011.  There were trees beginning to show a fair amount of dieback as individual trees in several of the treatments were beginning to show significant dieback in 2011.  Although there were a few trees showing significant dieback, the mean per treatment was still below 11% in all of the treatments in 2011.   Tree crews from the City of Kentwood are removing trees as they reach 50% dieback.  Several neighboring homeowners convinced the crews to remove their ashes in the hopes that new trees of different species would be replanted even though their original ash was not showing significant damage.  One ash was removed that had split and was not showing any dieback.  This is the reason that several of the treatments have shown a reduction by 1 of the number of trees evaluated between 2010 and 2011.

Even though most of the treatments were below 20% overall, the dieback had increased by 2012 and significant differences between treatments were observed.  The average dieback in the untreated check treatments had increased from 6.93% in 2011 to 22.88% in 2012 (tmt 1).  The Acecap treatment from CSI was significantly different with an overall dieback of 1.51% (tmt 17).  The Experimental 2 tree injection was also significantly different with a dieback mean of 2.6% (tmt 16).

All of the Valent products: Safari 20SG spring drench (tmt 10), Safari 20SG late June drench (tmt 14), Safari 2G spring granular (tmt 11), Arena 50WDG spring drench (tmt 12) and the combination Arena/Safari (tmt 13) as a spring drench were all significantly different from the untreated check.  The spring Safari drench was a better timing with dieback at 1.17% than waiting 4-5 weeks and applying in late June (7.33%).

Both of the Merit 75 drench treatments that were applied twice (therefore at a 2x rate) (tmts 3 and 4) were significantly different from the single application (1x rate) (tmt 2) which was not significantly different from the untreated check.  The three Bayer Advanced granular treatments gave the same results in that the application that was repeated (2x – tmt 8) was significantly different from the untreated check whereas the 2 granular treatments (tmt 0 and 6) applied a single time (1x) were not significantly different from the untreated treatment.  The Bayer Advanced liquid treatments showed the inverse in that the 1x rate was significantly different and the other two treatments applied at 2x were not significantly different from the untreated check.  There is no explanation as to why this occurred.

The data in Table 4 and Fig 1 of the neonicotinoid treatments show that rates higher than 2.25 grams active ingredient per inch diameter at breast height (DBH) were general significantly different from the untreated check.  Rates lower than 2.25 gr ai/DBH were all not significantly different than the untreated check except in one case.

April through June was much drier in 2012 than in the previous 2 years.  It is anticipated that the 2013 dieback will dramatically show differences between the treatments that are working vs the untreated check trees.  This trial will be completed with the evaluation of dieback in July of 2013.

 

 

Applying Acecap treatments 2012 Early May, 2012

 

Granular application, Kentwood EAB trial, 2010. Replacing damaged tags, Kentwood 2012

 

 

List of Treatments:

0)  Bayer Advanced SP102000017711 granular formulation containing imidacloprid (0.55%) & clothianidin (0.275%) (total ai – 0.825%) with DMSO and gypsum and 2-1-1 fertilizer applied at 56 grams of product per cm DBH.  142 grams of product per inch DBH was applied in a 12 inch band around the base of each tree on 26 Nov, 2008.  A small leaf rake was used to spread the chemical and to knock the granules into the grass.  This treatment was reapplied on 27 May, 2010 and on 25 May, 2011, and on16 May, 2012.  Trees 42, 58, 70, 75, 115, 150, 185, 216, 236 treated                     Tree 140 has been cut

 

1)        Untreated Check Trees 34, 41, 86, 106, 162, 204, 215, 230, 231, 232, 249 Originally, tree 221 was included.  It was deleted as it was treated with Tree-Age by a commercial concern.

 

2)        Merit 75 drench 1.9 gr prod per inch DBH applied in a 12 inch band around the base of the tree as a drench.  Merit 75 was used instead of Merit 2F, mixed 454g/5gal and sprayed at 50psi through a single wand backpack sprayer with the nozzle removed at 1L/9sec to give a metered dose based on time.  Application was on 26 May, 2009, 27 May, 2010, 25 May, 2011 and on 16 May, 2012.  Trees 54, 111, 118, 154, 176, 184, 197, 208, 225, 228, 247, 248

 

3)        Merit 75 drench 1.9 gr prod inch DBH applied in a 12 inch band around the base of the tree as a drench.  Merit 75 was used instead of Merit 2F, mixed 454g/5gal and sprayed at 50psi through a single wand backpack sprayer with the nozzle removed at 1L/9sec to give a metered dose based on time.  Application was on 26 May, 2009, 12 Jun, 2009, 27 May, 2010, 17 Jun, 2010, 25 May, 2011, 28 Jun, 2011, 16 May, 2012 and 20 Jun, 2012.  Trees 11, 47, 93, 97, 98, 137, 144, 172, 226, 227, 235, 238

 

4)        Merit 75 drench 1.9 gr prod inch DBH applied in a 12 inch band around the base of the tree as a drench.  Merit 75 was used instead of Merit 2F, mixed 454g/5gal and sprayed at 50psi through a single wand backpack sprayer with the nozzle removed at 1L/9sec to give a metered dose based on time.  Application was on 26 May, 2009, 26 Aug, 2009, 27 May, 2010, 23 Aug, 2010, 25 May, 2011, 22 Aug, 2011, and 16 May, 23 Aug, 2012.  Trees  5, 32, 89, 96, 113, 186, 199, 202, 211, 234, 240. Tree 212 has been cut

 

5)        Bayer Advanced liquid formulation containing imidacloprid (0.74%) & clothianidin (0.37%) (total ai – 1.11%) with green dye and 2-1-1 fertilizer applied at 36.57 ml of product per cm DBH.  92.9 ml of product per inch DBH was applied in a 12 inch band around the base of each tree on 26 May, 2009,  27 May, 2010, 25 May, 2011, and 16 May,  2012 by putting the product in a 5 gal CO2 powered sprayer and applying a timed dose through a wand applicator with the nozzle removed.  Trees 6, 38, 99, 147, 167, 168, 173, 213, 218, 220, 242, 244.

 

6)        Bayer Advanced granular formulation containing imidacloprid (0.55%) & clothianidin (0.275%) (total ai – 0.825%) with DH46 applied at 56 gr of product per cm DBH.  142 gr of product per inch DBH was applied in a 12 inch band around the base of each tree on 26 May, 2009, 27 May, 2010, 25 May, 2011 and 16 May, 2012.  Trees 28, 35, 55, 65, 142, 153, 170, 209, 214, 222, 233, 239.

 

7)        Bayer Advanced liquid formulation containing imidacloprid (0.74%) & clothianidin (0.37%) (total ai – 1.11%) with green dye and 2-1-1 fertilizer applied at 36.57 ml of product per cm DBH.  92.9 ml of product per inch DBH was applied in a 12 inch band around the base of each tree on 26 May, 2009, 12 Jun, 2009, 27 May, 2010, 17 Jun, 2010, 27 May, 2011, 28 Jun, 201, 16 May, 2012 and 20 Jun, 2012 by putting the product in a 5 gal CO2 powered sprayer and applying a timed dose through a wand applicator with the nozzle removed.  Trees 17, 40, 128, 145, 163, 182, 210, 219, 229, 237, 251. Tree 132 has been cut

 

8)        Bayer Advanced granular formulation containing imidacloprid (0.55%) & clothianidin (0.275%) (total ai – 0.825%) with DH46 applied at 56 gr of product per cm DBH.  142 gr of product per inch DBH was applied in a 12 inch band around the base of each tree on 26 May, 12 Jun, 2009, 27 May, 2010, 17 Jun, 2010 27 May, 2011, 28 Jun, 2011, 16 May, 2012 and 20 Jun, 2012.  Trees 37, 46, 66, 67, 88, 91, 100, 200, 241, 243, 253. Tree 217 has been cut

 

9)        Bayer Advanced liquid formulation containing imidacloprid (0.74%) & clothianidin (0.37%) (total ai – 1.11%) with green dye and 2-1-1 fertilizer applied at 73.15 ml of product per cm DBH.  185.8 ml of product per inch DBH was applied in a 12 inch band around the base of each tree on 26 May, 2009, 27 May, 2010, 27 May, 2011, and 16 May, 2012 by putting the product in a 5 gal CO2 powered sprayer and applying a timed dose through a wand applicator with the nozzle removed.  Trees 27, 33, 61, 73, 77, 180, 188, 207, 223, 224, 250, 252.

 

10)     Safari 20SG at 12 gr product per inch DBH applied as a drench in a 12 inch band around the base of the tree on 3 Jun, 2009, 27 May, 2010, 27 May, 2011, and 16 May, 2012.  The amount per tree was mixed in a gallon of water and poured around the base of the tree.  Trees 24, 101, 104, 116, 146, 148, 156, 166, 175, 245.

 

11)     Safari 2G at 120 gr product per inch DBH was applied in a 12 inch band around the base of each tree on 3 Jun, 2009, 27 May, 2010, and 27 May, 2011.  Application skipped in 2012 as the formulation has been discontinued.  Trees 44, 49, 56, 87, 103, 105, 124, 158, 171, 183.

 

12)     Arena 50 WDG at 4.8 gr product per inch DBH was applied as a drench in a 12 inch band around the base of each tree on 3 Jun, 2009, 27 May, 2010, 27 May, 2011, and 16 May, 2012.  The amount per tree was mixed in a gallon of water and poured around the base of the tree.  Trees 26, 57, 59, 76, 90, 107, 112, 160, 178, 206.

 

13)     Arena 50 WDG at 2.4 gr and Safari 20SG at 6 gr product per inch DBH was applied as a drench in a 12 inch band around the base of each tree on 3 Jun, 2009, 4 Jun, 2010, 27 May, 2011, and 16 May, 2012.  The amount per tree was mixed in a gallon of water and poured around the base of the tree.  (Tree 123 may have been skipped in 2009).  Trees 31, 48, 52, 69, 119, 123, 126, 139, 159, 195.

 

14)     Safari 20SG at 12 gr product per inch DBH applied as a drench in a 12 inch band around the base of the tree on 10 Jul, 2009, 17 Jun, 2010, 28 Jun, 2011 and 20 Jun, 2012.  The amount per tree was mixed in a gallon of water and poured around the base of the tree.  Trees 36, 50, 64, 109, 114, 133, 151, 179, 193, 196.

 

 

15)     SecrecyExperimental 1 Trunk Injection

 

16)     Secrecy Experimental 2 Trunk Injection

 

17)     Creative Sales Incorporated ACECAP Trunk Implants (0.875 grams acephate per cap) applied on 14 May, 2009, 6 May, 2010,  again between 24 – 31 May, 2011 (multiple trips due to battery issues) and on April 25, 2012.  A single cap was placed every 4″ around the base of the tree in a 3/8 inch diameter, 3/4 inch deep hole and sealed by tapping in a plastic septum.   (Tree 122 may have also gotten dosed with tmt 13 in 2009).  Trees 83, 94, 122, 138, 164, 169, 174, 177, 191, 246.

18)    Secrecy #9667


 

 

 

 

 

Table 1.  Emerald Ash Borer 2009, 2010, 2011 & 2012 Kentwood Dieback.  Listed by tmt #.  Bolded 2012 means indicate significance from the untreated check.

 

2009 2010 2011 2012

Tmt #          treatment          rate per app          app dates          n          % dieback          n          % dieback          n          % dieback          n          % dieback         

0    Bayer Advanced granular    142 gr prod/DBH inch    11/26/08, 5/27/10, 5/25/11, 5/16/12    10    3.75 a   10    1.51 a   9    6.94 a   8    10.84 abcde

1    Untreated Check                11    15.68     e   11    2.58 a   11    6.93 a   11    22.88     ef

2    Merit 75 Drench     1.9 gr prod/DBH inch    5/26/09, 5/27/10, 5/25/11,5/16/12    12    13.75    de 12    5.83 a   12    3.96 a   12    10.70  bcde

3    Merit 75 Drench     1.9 gr prod/DBH inch    5/26 & 6/12/09, 5/27 & 6/17/10, 5/25 & 6/28/11, 5/16 & 6/20/12    12    13.13     e   12    3.21 a   12    1.67 a   12    6.25 abc

4    Merit 75 Drench     1.9 gr prod/DBH inch    5/26 & 8/26/09, 5/27 & 8/24/10, 5/25 & 8/22/11, 5/16 & 8/23/12    12    6.67 abcde    12    3.33 a   11    1.71 a   11    5.91 abcd

5    Bayer Advanced liquid    92.9 ml/DBH inch    5/26/09, 5/27/10, 5/25/11, 5/16/12    12    6.04 abc    12    1.81 a   12    2.08 a   12    7.22 abcd

6    Bayer Advanced granular    142 gr prod/DBH inch    5/26/09, 5/27/10, 5/25/11, 5/16/12    12    8.75  bcde    12    4.88 a   12    5.41 a   12    14.73   cde

7    Bayer Advanced liquid    92.9 ml/DBH inch    5/26 & 6/12/09, 5/27 & 6/17/10, 5/27 & 6/28/11, 5/16 & 6/20/12    12    7.71 abcde    12    2.23 a   11    7.96 a   11    20.76    de

8    Bayer Advanced granular 142 gr prod/DBH inch    5/26 & 6/12/09, 5/27 & 6/17/10, 5/27 & 6/28/11, 5/16 & 6/20/12    12    6.04 abcde    11    0.76 a   11    2.73 a   11    7.26 abc

9    Bayer Advanced liquid    185.5 ml/DBH inch    5/26/09, 5/27/10, 5/27/11, 5/16/12    12    11.88   cde    12    3.89 a   12    4.38 a   12    13.07  bcde

10    Safari 20SG Drench    12 gr prod/DBH inch    6/3/09, 5/27/10, 5/27/11, 5/16/12    10    6.00 abcd    10    1.01 a   10    0.00 a   10    1.17 a

11    Safari 2G    120 gr prod/DBH inch    6/3/09, 5/27/10, 5/27/11    10    1.50 a   10    0.83 a   10    2.25 a   10    2.17 ab

12    Arena 50WDG Drench    4.8 gr prod/DBH inch    6/3/09, 5/27/10, 5/27/11, 5/16/12    10    1.75 a   10    2.17 a   10    1.63 a   10    1.33 ab

13    Arena 50WDG/Safari 20SG Drench    2.4 gr & 12 gr prod/DBH inch    6/3/09, 5/27/10, 5/27/11, 5/16/12    10    8.50 abcde    10    2.67 a   10    2.88 a   10    7.34 abcd

14    Safari 20SG Drench    12 gr prod/DBH inch    7/10/09, 6/17/10, 6/28/11, 6/20/12    10    5.25 abcd    10    4.17 a   10    7.13 a   10    7.33 abcd

15    Experimental 1 Trunk Injection          6/3/2009, 5/31/2011    9    9.72 abcde    9    3.51 a   8    10.18 a    8    23.96    def

16    Experimental 2 Trunk Injection         6/3/2009, 5/31/2011    9    2.22 ab 9    2.22 a   9    2.13 a   9    2.60 ab

17 CSI Acecap    1 cap/4 inches circumference    5/14/09, 5/6/10, 5/24-31/11, 4/25/12    10    2.50 a   10    3.50 a   10    2.38 a   10    1.51 ab

18 CSI #9667         5/14/09, 5/6/10    10    2.50 a   10    4.34 a   10    10.63 a    10    36.00      f

Data were transformed arcsine (square root (x/100))*57.3 prior to ANOVA.  Untransformed means are presented in table

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2.  Emerald Ash Borer 2009, 2010, 2011 & 2012 Kentwood Dieback.  Listed in order from most to least dieback with untreated check at the top of the table.

2009 2010 2011 2012

Tmt #          treatment          rate per app          app dates          n          % dieback          n          % dieback          n          % dieback          n          % dieback         

1    Untreated Check                11    15.68     e   11    2.58 a   11    6.93 a   11    22.88     ef

18 CSI #9667         5/14/09, 5/6/10    10    2.50 a   10    4.34 a   10    10.63 a    10    36.00      f

15    Experimental 1 Trunk Injection          6/3/2009, 5/31/2011    9    9.72 abcde    9    3.51 a   8    10.18 a    8    23.96    def

7    Bayer Advanced liquid    92.9 ml/DBH inch    5/26 & 6/12/09, 5/27 & 6/17/10, 5/27 & 6/28/11, 5/16 & 6/20/12    12    7.71 abcde    12    2.23 a   11    7.96 a   11    20.76    de

6    Bayer Advanced granular    142 gr prod/DBH inch    5/26/09, 5/27/10, 5/25/11, 5/16/12    12    8.75  bcde    12    4.88 a   12    5.41 a   12    14.73   cde

9    Bayer Advanced liquid    185.5 ml/DBH inch    5/26/09, 5/27/10, 5/27/11, 5/16/12    12    11.88   cde    12    3.89 a   12    4.38 a   12    13.07  bcde

0    Bayer Advanced granular    142 gr prod/DBH inch    11/26/08, 5/27/10, 5/25/11, 5/16/12    10    3.75 a   10    1.51 a   9    6.94 a   8    10.84 abcde

2    Merit 75 Drench     1.9 gr prod/DBH inch    5/26/09, 5/27/10, 5/25/11,5/16/12    12    13.75    de 12    5.83 a   12    3.96 a   12    10.70  bcde

13    Arena 50WDG/Safari 20SG Drench    2.4 gr & 12 gr prod/DBH inch    6/3/09, 5/27/10, 5/27/11, 5/16/12    10    8.50 abcde    10    2.67 a   10    2.88 a   10    7.34 abcd

14    Safari 20SG Drench    12 gr prod/DBH inch    7/10/09, 6/17/10, 6/28/11, 6/20/12    10    5.25 abcd    10    4.17 a   10    7.13 a   10    7.33 abcd

8    Bayer Advanced granular    142 gr prod/DBH inch    5/26 & 6/12/09, 5/27 & 6/17/10, 5/27 & 6/28/11, 5/16 & 6/20/12    12    6.04 abcde    11    0.76 a   11    2.73 a   11    7.26 abc

5    Bayer Advanced liquid    92.9 ml/DBH inch    5/26/09, 5/27/10, 5/25/11, 5/16/12    12    6.04 abc    12    1.81 a   12    2.08 a   12    7.22 abcd

3    Merit 75 Drench     1.9 gr prod/DBH inch    5/26 & 6/12/09, 5/27 & 6/17/10, 5/25 & 6/28/11, 5/16 & 6/20/12    12    13.13     e   12    3.21 a   12    1.67 a   12    6.25 abc

4    Merit 75 Drench     1.9 gr prod/DBH inch    5/26 & 8/26/09, 5/27 & 8/24/10, 5/25 & 8/22/11, 5/16 & 8/23/12    12    6.67 abcde    12    3.33 a   11    1.71 a   11    5.91 abcd

16    Experimental 2 Trunk Injection          6/3/2009, 5/31/2011    9    2.22 ab 9    2.22 a   9    2.13 a   9    2.60 ab

11    Safari 2G    120 gr prod/DBH inch    6/3/09, 5/27/10, 5/27/11    10    1.50 a   10    0.83 a   10    2.25 a   10    2.17 ab

17 CSI Acecap    1 cap/4 inches circumference    5/14/09, 5/6/10, 5/24-31/11, 4/25/12    10    2.50 a   10    3.50 a   10    2.38 a   10    1.51 ab

12    Arena 50WDG Drench    4.8 gr prod/DBH inch    6/3/09, 5/27/10, 5/27/11, 5/16/12    10    1.75 a   10    2.17 a   10    1.63 a   10    1.33 ab

10    Safari 20SG Drench    12 gr prod/DBH inch    6/3/09, 5/27/10, 5/27/11, 5/16/12    10    6.00 abcd    10    1.01 a   10    0.00 a   10    1.17

Data were transformed arcsine (square root (x/100))*57.3 prior to ANOVA.  Untransformed means are presented in table.

 

Table 3.  Monthly precipitation from Clarksville, MI

Inches

Inches

Inches

Inches

Month

Year

Precip

Month

Year

Precip

Month

Year

Precip

Month

Year

Precip

Mar

2009

2.26

Mar

2010

1.18

Mar

2011

3.4

Mar

2012

3.35

Apr

2009

5.45

Apr

2010

3.55

Apr

2011

4.96

Apr

2012

2.51

May

2009

2.22

May

2010

3.82

May

2011

4.51

May

2012

1.83

June

2009

4.79

June

2010

4.48

June

2011

2.09

June

2012

1.78

July

2009

2.28

July

2010

4.33

July

2011

6.11

July

2012

3.17

Aug

2009

4.91

Aug

2010

1.4

Aug

2011

3.4

Aug

2012

3.82

Sept

2009

1.04

Sept

2010

5.14

Sept

2011

1.02

Oct

2009

2.1

Oct

2010

2.54

Oct

2011

3.13

Nov

2009

2.13

Nov

2010

2.51

Nov

2011

2.68

Dec

2009

1.61

Dec

2010

1.19

Dec

2011

2.44

Jan

2010

0.36

Jan

2011

0.25

Jan

2012

1.46

Feb

2010

0.89

Feb

2011

0.7

Feb

2012

1.41

 

 

 

Table 4.  Amount of active ingredient per inch diameter at breast height (DHB).

 

 

 

Tmt #

ai

 

% ai ratio

total % ai/year

rate used per app

gr ai per DBH inch per year

tmt dates

total gr ai/DBH inch from 2008 – 2011

2012 mean dieback

10

dinotefuran

drench

20

20

12 gr/DBH

2.4 dinotefuran

6/3/09, 5/27/10, 5/27/11, 5/16/12

7.20

1.17

14

dinotefuran

drench

20

20

12 gr/DBH

2.4 dinotefuran

7/10/09, 6/17/10, 6/28/11, 6/20/12

7.20

7.33

12

clothianidin

drench

50

50

4.8 gr prod/DBH

2.4 clothianidin

6/3/09, 5/27/10, 5/27/11, 5/16/12

7.20

1.33

11

dinotefuran

basal granular

2

2

120 gr prod/DBH

2.4 dinotefuran

6/3/09, 5/27/10, 5/27/11

7.20

2.17

13

clothianidin/dinotefuran

drench

50/20

 

2.4/6 gr prod/DBH

1.2 clothianidin/1.2 gr dinotefuran

6/3/09, 5/27/10, 5/27/11, 5/16/12

7.20

7.34

2

imidacloprid

drench

75

75

1.9 gr prod/DBH

1.43 imidacloprid

5/26/09, 5/27/10, 5/25/11,5/16/12

4.29

10.70

4

imidacloprid

drench

75

75

1.9 gr prod/DBH

2.86 imidacloprid

5/26 & 8/26/09, 5/27 & 8/24/10, 5/25 & 8/22/11, 5/16 & 8/23/12

8.58

5.91

3

imidacloprid

drench

75

75

1.9 gr prod/DBH

2.86 imidacloprid

5/26 & 6/12/09, 5/27 & 6/17/10, 5/25 & 6/28/11, 5/16 & 6/20/12

8.58

6.25

6

imidacloprid/clothianidin

basal granular

0.55/0.275

0.825

142 gr prod/DBH

0.78 imidacloprid/0.39 clothianidin

5/26/09, 5/27/10, 5/25/11, 5/16/12

3.51

14.73

0

imidacloprid/clothianidin

basal granular

0.55/0.275

0.825

142 gr prod/DBH

0.78 imidacloprid/0.39 clothianidin

11/26/08, 5/27/10, 5/25/11, 5/16/12

3.51

10.84

8

imidacloprid/clothianidin

basal granular

0.55/0.275

0.825

142 gr prod/DBH

1.56 imidacloprid/0.78 clothianidin

5/26 & 6/12/09, 5/27 & 6/17/10, 5/27 & 6/28/11, 5/16 & 6/20/12

7.02

7.26

5

imidacloprid/clothianidin

liquid – basal straight

0.74/0.37

1.11

92.9 ml/DBH

0.69 imidacloprid/0.34 clothianidin

5/26/09, 5/27/10, 5/25/11, 5/16/12

3.09

7.22

9

imidacloprid/clothianidin

liquid – basal straight

0.74/0.37

1.11

185.8 ml/DBH

1.37 imidacloprid/0.69 clothianidin

5/26/09, 5/27/10, 5/27/11, 5/16/12

6.18

13.07

7

imidacloprid/clothianidin

liquid – basal straight

0.74/0.37

1.11

92.9 ml/DBH

1.37 imidacloprid/0.69 clothianidin

5/26 & 6/12/09, 5/27 & 6/17/10, 5/27 & 6/28/11, 5/16 & 6/20/12

6.18

20.76

1

untreated

0.00

22.88

17

acephate

inject

 

 

 

0.7

5/14/09, 5/6/10, 5/28/11, 4/25/12

2.80

1.51

16

Secrecy

inject

 

 

 

0.3

6/3/2009, 5/31/2011

0.60

2.60

15

Secrecy

inject

0.1

6/3/2009, 5/31/2011

0.20

23.96

18

Secrecy

inject

0.13

5/14/09, 5/6/10

0.26

36.00

 

 

 

Fig 1.  DBH rate of neonicotinoids vs mean dieback.  Means below the horizontal line are treatments that are significantly different from the untreated check.  The vertical line indicates 2.25 gr ai/DBH.

 

 

 

Table 5.  Raw dieback ratings (means per tree).

2008

Tree #

DBH

inches

Trt #

Rep

2009 dieback

2010 dieback

2011 Dieback

2012 Dieback

42

8.5

0

1

12.5

1.7

0

0.0

58

13.5

0

2

0

0.0

0

0.0

70

8.5

0

3

0

5.0

8.75

35.0

75

10

0

4

0

0.0

0

20.0

115

11.5

0

5

0

1.7

0

1.7

140

12

0

6

0

0.0

.

.

150

15

0

7

0

5.0

48.75

.

185

10

0

8

2.5

0.0

3.75

0.0

216

13

0

9

0

1.7

1.25

25.0

236

18.5

0

10

22.5

0.0

0

5.0

231

18

1

1

37.5

0.0

10

50.0

232

17

1

2

42.5

0.0

11.25

35.0

230

16

1

3

40

0.0

0

23.3

249

13

1

5

20

5.0

26.25

46.7

215

13

1

6

7.5

5.0

3.75

11.7

106

10

1

7

0

0.0

0

5.0

162

9.5

1

8

5

1.7

0

5.0

86

9

1

9

0

0.0

0

1.7

34

8.5

1

10

2.5

0.0

0

5.0

204

7.5

1

11

2.5

5.0

12.5

60.0

41

6.5

1

12

15

11.7

12.5

8.3

208

17

2

1

0

0.0

0

0.0

225

17

2

2

35

8.3

10

16.7

228

16

2

3

22.5

1.7

0

15.0

248

15

2

4

27.5

5.0

0

16.7

247

13

2

5

12.5

1.7

6.25

31.7

184

12.5

2

6

2.5

0.0

0

0.0

54

10

2

7

2.5

0.0

0

8.3

154

9.5

2

8

2.5

11.7

0

0.0

118

9

2

9

10

3.3

5

6.7

176

8

2

10

10

3.3

6.25

13.3

197

7.5

2

11

2.5

1.7

0

1.7

111

7

2

12

37.5

33.3

20

18.3

235

20

3

1

22.5

1.7

0

5.0

226

17

3

2

20

10.0

5

31.7

227

16

3

3

27.5

1.7

2.5

11.7

238

14.5

3

4

22.5

0.0

0

3.3

47

12

3

5

5

1.7

0

5.0

98

13

3

6

17.5

3.3

2.5

5.0

11

10

3

7

0

1.7

0

0.0

137

10

3

8

2.5

0.0

5

10.0

97

9

3

9

15

13.3

0

0.0

93

8.5

3

10

12.5

1.7

0

0.0

144

7.5

3

11

10

1.7

5

3.3

172

7

3

12

2.5

1.7

0

0.0

240

18

4

1

10

1.7

0

15.0

234

16.5

4

2

27.5

5.0

0

8.3

212

16

4

3

7.5

0.0

.

.

211

15

4

4

0

0.0

1.25

5.0

186

13

4

5

2.5

0.0

0

0.0

96

12.5

4

6

0

0.0

0

1.7

113

10

4

7

5

3.3

2.5

1.7

202

9.5

4

8

5

1.7

0

0.0

32

9

4

9

17.5

20.0

13.75

11.7

199

8

4

10

5

1.7

0

13.3

5

7

4

11

0

3.3

1.25

3.3

89

6.5

4

12

0

3.3

0

5.0

213

19

5

1

0

0.0

0

3.3

218

16

5

2

0

0.0

0

6.7

244

16

5

3

15

0.0

0

38.3

242

15

5

4

12.5

0.0

3.75

13.3

220

13

5

5

0

0.0

0

10.0

168

13

5

6

0

0.0

0

1.7

99

10

5

7

0

0.0

3.75

0.0

167

9

5

8

5

0.0

0

0.0

147

9

5

9

2.5

20.0

10

3.3

38

8

5

10

5

1.7

0

0.0

173

7.5

5

11

25

0.0

7.5

5.0

6

7

5

12

7.5

0.0

0

5.0

233

17

6

1

25

0.0

0

16.7

214

17

6

2

5

11.7

6.25

11.7

239

16

6

3

17.5

1.7

1.25

6.7

209

14

6

4

10

6.7

12.5

45.0

222

13

6

5

5

1.7

1.25

48.3

153

12.5

6

6

2.5

0.0

0

3.3

55

10

6

7

22.5

11.7

13.75

16.7

142

10

6

8

0

1.7

1.25

10.0

170

9

6

9

2.5

13.3

18.75

13.3

65

8.5

6

10

2.5

1.7

7.5

0.0

35

7.5

6

11

10

5.0

0

5.0

28

7

6

12

2.5

3.3

2.5

0.0

229

18

7

1

20

1.7

0

16.7

210

16

7

2

0

0.0

62.5

40.0

251

15

7

3

12.5

5.0

5

33.3

132

14

7

4

5

1.7

.

.

237

13.5

7

5

20

1.7

0

3.3

219

13

7

6

5

1.7

1.25

35.0

128

10

7

7

0

0.0

0

40.0

145

9

7

8

0

0.0

12.5

40.0

182

9

7

9

2.5

8.3

0

0.0

163

7.5

7

10

5

0.0

0

0.0

17

7

7

11

15

6.7

6.25

20.0

40

6.5

7

12

7.5

0.0

0

0.0

217

18

8

1

0

cut

.

.

243

16

8

2

15

0.0

0

3.3

241

15.5

8

3

10

0.0

1.25

48.3

66

12

8

4

0

0.0

0

0.0

88

13.5

8

5

0

0.0

0

0.0

253

13

8

6

20

1.7

0

3.3

67

10

8

7

2.5

0.0

1.25

3.3

46

9.5

8

8

10

0.0

3.75

0.0

200

9

8

9

5

0.0

0

0.0

91

8

8

10

2.5

3.3

22.5

20.0

100

8

8

11

2.5

0.0

1.25

1.7

37

7

8

12

5

3.3

0

0.0

252

18.5

9

1

7.5

0.0

0

26.7

250

17

9

2

25

8.3

1.25

11.7

224

15

9

3

5

1.7

0

26.7

180

14

9

4

5

0.0

0

0.0

61

13

9

5

2.5

5.0

23.75

51.7

188

13

9

6

0

0.0

0

0.0

223

10

9

7

15

0.0

2.5

15.0

207

9

9

8

5

0.0

1.25

0.0

77

9

9

9

20

8.3

20

21.7

73

8

9

10

47.5

21.7

3.75

0.0

33

7.5

9

11

5

1.7

0

0.0

27

7

9

12

5

0.0

0

3.3

245

12

10

1

17.5

0.0

0

3.3

146

11.5

10

2

7.5

0.0

0

1.7

156

11.5

10

3

0

0.0

0

1.7

175

11

10

4

17.5

0.0

0

0.0

116

10.5

10

5

0

0.0

0

0.0

104

10

10

6

0

0.0

0

0.0

166

10

10

7

2.5

1.7

0

3.3

148

9

10

8

7.5

6.7

0

1.7

24

8.5

10

9

7.5

1.7

0

0.0

101

7.5

10

10

0

0.0

0

0.0

105

12

11

1

0

0.0

0

0.0

183

11.5

11

2

2.5

0.0

0

0.0

103

11

11

3

0

0.0

0

0.0

44

11

11

4

2.5

0.0

0

6.7

124

10.5

11

5

2.5

0.0

0

0.0

49

10

11

6

2.5

0.0

7.5

6.7

158

10

11

7

0

0.0

0

0.0

87

9.5

11

8

0

8.3

12.5

8.3

56

9

11

9

2.5

0.0

2.5

0.0

171

8

11

10

2.5

0.0

0

0.0

90

12

12

1

2.5

1.7

0

0.0

206

12

12

2

2.5

0.0

0

1.7

178

11

12

3

2.5

0.0

0

0.0

59

11

12

4

0

0.0

2.5

0.0

160

10.5

12

5

0

0.0

1.25

3.3

76

10

12

6

0

0.0

0

0.0

57

10

12

7

2.5

0.0

2.5

0.0

107

9.5

12

8

0

11.7

3.75

3.3

26

8.5

12

9

7.5

0.0

0

3.3

112

8.5

12

10

0

8.3

6.25

1.7

126

12

13

1

5

0.0

0

1.7

52

11.5

13

2

2.5

0.0

0

40.0

69

11.5

13

3

0

1.7

5

0.0

48

11

13

4

0

0.0

0

0.0

159

10.5

13

5

0

0.0

0

1.7

195

10.5

13

6

37.5

3.3

12.5

5.0

139

10

13

7

12.5

1.7

1.25

10.0

119

9.5

13

8

17.5

5.0

5

3.3

122

9

13

9

5

13.3

5

11.7

31

8

13

10

5

1.7

0

0.0

151

12

14

1

0

1.7

7.5

10.0

196

12

14

2

0

0.0

0

0.0

179

11

14

3

7.5

0.0

0

3.3

50

11

14

4

20

25.0

8.75

11.7

133

10.5

14

5

2.5

1.7

0

8.3

64

10

14

6

2.5

0.0

0

0.0

109

10

14

7

10

5.0

40

26.7

114

9.5

14

8

0

1.7

0

3.3

193

8.5

14

9

2.5

3.3

15

10.0

36

8

14

10

7.5

3.3

0

0.0

165

12

15

1

2.5

0.0

1.25

3.3

130

11.5

15

2

5

3.3

.

.

45

11

15

3

2.5

0.0

0

6.7

152

11

15

4

0

0.0

0

5.0

60

10.5

15

5

10

6.7

58.75

90.0

143

10.5

15

6

0

0.0

0

0.0

62

10

15

7

2.5

0.0

0

0.0

72

8.5

15

8

62.5

11.7

11.25

80.0

125

11.5

15

9

2.5

10.0

7.5

6.7

149

12

16

1

2.5

1.7

2.5

0.0

194

11.5

16

2

0

0.0

0

0.0

190

11

16

3

2.5

13.3

1.25

0.0

53

10.5

16

4

7.5

3.3

8.75

5.0

136

10

16

5

2.5

0.0

0

5.0

82

10

16

6

2.5

0.0

0

10.0

108

9.5

16

7

2.5

0.0

0

3.3

78

8.5

16

8

0

1.7

1.25

0.0

12

8.5

16

9

0

0.0

0

0.0

246

12

17

1

10

0.0

0

5.0

83

11.5

17

2

0

0.0

0

0.0

94

11

17

3

0

0.0

0

1.7

174

11

17

4

5

0.0

0

1.7

169

10.5

17

5

0

0.0

1.25

0.0

177

10.5

17

6

0

1.7

0

0.0

138

10

17

7

0

13.3

10

3.3

123

9.5

17

8

5

6.7

1.25

0.0

164

9

17

9

5

5.0

2.5

1.7

191

8.5

17

10

0

8.3

8.75

1.7

131

12

18

1

5

18.3

71.25

90.0

121

11.5

18

2

0

16.7

28.75

30.0

30

11

18

3

0

0.0

0

71.7

117

11

18

4

0

0.0

0

25.0

92

10.5

18

5

15

3.3

1.25

10.0

68

10.5

18

6

0

0.0

0

36.7

80

10

18

7

0

1.7

1.25

78.3

102

9.5

18

8

0

0.0

2.5

0.0

9

8.5

18

9

5

1.7

0

13.3

95

8

18

10

0

1.7

1.25

5.0

 

 

 

About the Author

Lisa Hughes

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